Wool, cotton, silk materials are colored mostly with certain plants and water. The temperature level of the water and duration of coloring process give different color tones. There are two types of coloring:
Ebullition: Heating to maximum 380. Desired color is obtained within 3-4 hours. Fermentation: Cold water is used. It takes 3-4 weeks to extract the desired color. The color on the material looks more alive. Mixture of 4 main colors in certain percentages gives the color palette.
After the color extracting process, additional substances are added to fix the color on the material. Most widely used materials are alum, crystal salt and cream tartar. Ph level of the water affects the duration for drying.
Certain handmade carpets are woven without any coloring. In that technique, the wool is extracted and woven with the original color of the animal hair. Some examples are: black goat, black sheep, and white sheep.
Nowadays, the coloring is made with modern techniques. Each color has a pantone code in the color palette. However, it is still possible to find handmade carpets woven with materials colored by traditional techniques.